American Society For Nutrition

Fat Matters- Thence Give me the Cold Shoulder!

Fat Matters- Thence Give me the Cold Shoulder!

Excellence in Nutrition Research and Practice
Posted on 02/23/2011 at 08:30:14 PM by Student Blogger
By: Gopi M.K.

Cold weather has a way to kindle slack in most of us. Come winter, my running schedule comes to a halt and I end up swaddled in layers of fabric like a big heap - just like my unspent calories. I used to fret about the fattening storm inside me until I came across brown adipose tissue (BAT) and I realized that the cold isn't bad.  A new view about fat became apparent and it was so cool that it was hot (pun intended).

Fat is primarily stored as large lipid droplets in the cells of white adipose tissue and a surfeit of this tissue has become synonymous with obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome. BAT, on the other hand, is more of a fat incinerator than a fat depository, in that it burns fat to generate heat to maintain the core body temperature in infants and small mammals. In adults, it was thought to be absent or vestigial until two years ago, when studies confirmed the formation and presence in humans in response to cold temperatures. Functionally active BAT was found below the shoulder blades and an increase in energy expenditure during rest was observed when the subjects were exposed to cold temperatures (1). All you need to do is treat winter as summer and you could burn calories without a bead of sweat! While it is not as simple as it seems, BAT has opened exciting possibilities for modulating energy expenditure.

While mild cold weather serves us good by activating BAT and burning energy, statistics suggest a direct correlation between obesity prevalence and winter domestic temperatures in the US and UK (4). The indoor temperatures rose steadily in the last few decades and so has the body mass index (BMI). Thus, as we reside more in our thermal comfort zones and spend energy we are not actually spending energy. By turning down the  heater we could pride ourselves as altruists while at the same time doing ourselves a favor.

A twist however, is the negative correlation between BAT and body fat percentage, body mass index and old age (5).  Unfortunately, these are the very groups ravaged by all the morbidities associated with being overweight. Obesity is not just a burden to the individual, but is a looming public health catastrophe in many nations. This is more so for developing nations, which are just beginning to see improved standards of living and the population is mostly young. Once the bulge sets in and the population is significantly older, the possibilities look grim. At this juncture, while there are many questions about BAT and how best to use it, take my cue, join me, and stay cool. Fight fat with fat!

Literature Cited:

1. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Vanhommerig JW, Smulders NM, Drossaerts JM, Kemerink GJ, Bouvy ND, Schrauwen P, Teule GJ. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360:1500-8.
2. Celi FS. Brown adipose tissue--when it pays to be inefficient. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360:1553-6.
3. Farmer SR. Obesity: Be cool, lose weight. Nature. 2009 Apr 16;458:839-40.
4. Johnson F, Mavroggiani A, Ucci  M, Vidal-Puig A, Wardle J. Could increased time spent in a thermal comfort zone contribute to population increases in obesity? Obes Rev. 2011 Jan 24.
5. Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G, Tal I, Rodman D, Goldfine AB, Kuo FC, Palmer EL, Tseng YH, et al. Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360:1509-17.

Posted Mar 02, 2011 4:44 PM by Martin Green

This article is a great example of applying nutrition science to the real world. Who knew relaxation in mildly cold weather could burn fat? I will be spending more time outdoors from now on. Thanks for the heads up.

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